Laz positional verbs: semantics and use with inanimate Figures

Silvia Kutscher N. Sevim Genç

In this article, we discuss the meaning and use of positional verbs in the South-Caucasian language Laz. Positional verbs are defined as those verbs which — in combination with one of several locational verbal prefixes (preverbs) — may appear in the basic construction that functions as an answer to a “where” question, the so-called basic locative construction (BLC). Within this class of verbs, we pay particular attention to those positionals which are used regularly in our data to describe the configuration of inanimate movable objects. Laz is shown to be a multiverb language, i.e., a language that uses a comparatively large set of verbs in the BLC. The fourteen verbs in question are PRV-dgun 'stand', PRV-ren 'stand', PRV-zun 'lie', PRV-xen 'sit, stay', PRV-bun 'be located as mass', PRV-mpiy 'be spread', PRV-sun 'be smeared', PRV-tun 'cover', PRV-bun 'hang', PRV-noy 'stick, be stuck', PRV-nun 'be dipped', PRV-abun 'stick to, be sticky', PRV-orun 'be bound', PRV-gzun 'burn'. The semantics and the use of these verbs are described in some detail including nontypical configurations, which trigger variation among speakers due to alternative categorizations and prototype effects.

Linguistics, 2007, Volume: 45 | Issue: 5 part 6: 1029-1064



A too simple understanding of the process of Greek colonisation, especially the reasons for it, sometimes leads modern scholars to unrealistic conclusions. This paper examines the view commonly found in the literature that the main reason for the arrival of the lonians in Colchis in the middle of the 6th century BC was the area's richness in metals. Archaeological material discussed here shows that Eastern Pontus was far from being so well endowed, and that the local tribes were less advanced in metallurgy than is often believed. The Scythian ‘incursion’into Colchis at the end of the 7th century BC both introduced Colchians to iron metallurgy and gave rise to a lacuna in the material culture of the area. New tribes in the Eastern Black Sea in the middle of the 6th century BC revived the iron industry, but it never again reached the scale of production achieved in the 7th century BC. The involvement of the Greeks in iron metallurgy is a matter of which, so far, we know nothing. Nevertheless, the Greeks, trying to adapt their art to the tastes of the local rulers, established in Colchis in the 5th century BC schools of gold- and silver-smiths, as well as the production of metal seals and engraved gems.

Oxford Journal of Archaeology 14 (3), 307–331.

Fine Linen from Colchis?


Résumé / Abstract
Le mot srad est employé une seule fois pour caractériser le vêtement du Grand-Prêtre (Exode 31: 10, 35: 19, 39: 1, 41, bigdé ha-srad). Son origine et son sens sont obscurs. L'A. signale une hypothèse: le lin fin de Colchis, dont Hérodote dit qu'il est hupo Hellènon Sardonikon keklètai, Sardonikon venant phonétiquement du çrath sanskrit: "toile fine".

Journal Title
Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft Berlin
1983, vol. 95, no3, pp. 430-431

The Cult of Mithras in Ancient Colchis


The cult of Mithras in Colchis was widespread from the Hellenistic period onward. This has been borne out by a fragment of a Colchian amphora discovered during excavations at the city-site of Pichvnari, bearing the circular imprint of a seal described in detail here (it depicts a horseman, a six-pointed star, a bird and a sprig). This cult made its way to Colchis from the neighbouring state of the Achaemenids. Its syncretic character enabled it gradually to blend into the cult of the sun, Helios being a widely venerated deity in Colchis. Mithras must have been the precursor of Saint George in pagan Georgia.

Gocha R. TSETSKHLADZE, «The Cult of Mithras in Ancient Colchis», Revue de l'histoire des religions, 2/1992, [En ligne], mis en ligne le 28 août 2007. URL : Consulté le 19 décembre 2007.